Reading 1: from
Slaying of Apsu
above were yet unnamed,
Then Lahmu and Lahumu
Day on day,
year on year passed before Anu,
all brothers, but the young gods fell
Tiamat just lay there ignoring everything.
Mummu advised Apsu. He spoke in malice: 'Father, squash those little imps now!
was discovered by the children.
the word that charms the waters; they fell
off Apsu's flaming glory robe, took his crown,
defeated his enemies, trod them down.
There in the
chamber where destinies are made,
His form was
proud; wherever he raised his eyes
were made with skill past understanding,
'My son, my
son, son of the sun, and heaven's sun!'
So now the other gods
could sleep no more.
listened and approved. 'All right,' she said,
around and joined ranks to march
Red Fury Dragon,
She said to
him: 'Now it is in your hands. I have cast
made him clasp
the Tables of Fate to his chest.
Lahmu and Lahumu are unknown (Mr and Mrs Mud?). Anshar is Father Sky, and
Kishar Mother Earth.
Damkina is mother of Marduk.
"Lord" is Bel, a word commonly applied to patron gods. Marduk is the chief god of Babylon
The creatures of Tiamat are underworld demons destined to become constellations in the sky.
Anukki are the underworlld spirits, later named the judges of the underworld.
the gods respond
creations were complete, Tiamat
[omitted: Ea tells Anshar about Tiamat's forces.
nothing. He stared at the ground.
he could think of nothing else, Anshar,
[omitted: Marduk strikes a deal with the freightened gods to become their ruler, if he fights Tiamat.]
exulted. His spirits raced as he said
No one can face the Queen of Underworld and live
the gods are summoned to council
to Kaka: ''You are the counselor
Kaka took his way down to Lahmu and Lahamu.
[omitted: Kaka relays the message.]
the pair heard him they muttered, and
In the Hall
of the Synod ancient voices were heard.
[Omitted: the gods make Marduk their king, and he goes into battle.]
the storm, his terrible chariot,
He posted on
his right Batterer, best in the mêlée;
toward the rising sound of Tiamat's rage.
right at her,
scanned the Deep, and saw
did not turn her head. She
lord raised the hurricane, his great weapon,
heard him her wits scattered.
shot his net to entangle her.
them in the net, smashed their weapons
the usurper, their chief, Marduk bound
back to where Tiamat lay bound,
rested. He gazed at the huge carcass,
crossed the sky to survey the infinite distance.
the constellations include the underworld demons that the Lord has bound.
He gave the
great gods their starry forms
He pushed the head
of waters down under hills
huge mountains on her breasts and he dug
that was done, he
founded temples on earth dedicated to Ea.Those gods he had beaten
generations of the Great Gods were full of joy,
heavenly gods were there, all the Igigi fell
the throne raised up in the temple.
older gods had heard this, they replied
gods worshipped him as king of the
Tigris and Euphrates
the god's art
Marduk heard what the gods were pledging,
Marduk with careful words,
called together the great gods. He presided
gods answered the Lord of the Universe,
King Marduk divided the six hundred gods
the gods had been allotted
heard this his face brightened like day:
took up the tools. One whole year long
"dear city of god,"
When all the
gods sat down together there was wine
fifty great gods had sat down
the bow and kissed it. He said before
ratified his authority as King of Kings, Lord
wait and listen, we worship
The Hymn of the Fifty Names of Marduk
Voices of older days have spoken; Lahmu, Lahamu, Anshar have spoken, each of them uttered three names; they said to the children, 'Three names he has from each of us, three names he needs from you.'
before in Synod in Ubshukinna, at the place of decision, the young gods eagerly
The reason for human beings to exist is only to serve the gods.
the tower of Babel
the bow of heaven
Babylonians referred to themselves as "the black-headed men."
The hymn of the priests of Marduk
The Hymn, continued.
Remember the Titles of Marduk! Rulers will recite them, wise men and sages discuss them, father to son repeat them, even shepherds and herdsmen shall hear them.
Let people rejoice in Marduk! The prince of the gods. Man and earth will prosper, for his rule is strong, his command is firm, none of the gods can alter his will. Where his eyes have fixed they do not fail.
There is no god can bear his anger. His intellect is vast and his benevolence. Sinners and such trash he will blast from his presence--but not so the wise teacher whose words we have heard. He wrote them down, he saved them for time to come.
Let the Igigi who built his dwelling, let the gods speak: this was the song of Marduk who defeated Tiamat and became king.