Boys memorizing the Qur'an: picture from Scotland Today, Paula Bronstein/Getty Images.

Damrosch, David et al. (eds). The Longman Anthology of World Literature. 3 Vols A, B, C. New York: Pearson/Longman, 2nd ed. 2008.

Goethe image by J.H.W. Tischbein (Gero von Willpert, Deutsche Literatur in Bildern (Stuttgart: Kroener, 1965),

Hajj pilgrimage. Photo CNN.Com, courtesy of Saudi television (1998).

Martin, Thomas. Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times. New Haven: Yale U. Press, 2000.

Mesopotamia is bounded by two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates (hence its name, meaning "between rivers").

Oedipus and the Sphinx: image adapted by Goes from an ancient Greek bowl. A Phoenician colony, Thebes was an early literary capital whose stories were preserved for the later Greeks and Romans.

Ogden, Daniel. Greek and Roman Necromancy. Princeton U Press: Princeton, 2001.

Ratley, John J. A User's Guide to the Brain. New York: Random House, 2001.

Rieu, E.V. “Introduction.” Iliad by Homer. New York: Penguin 2003.

Rushdie knighthood protested by young Muslims in London. Daily Mail photo 6/22/2007.

Sapolsky, Robert M.  Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers: An Updated Guide to Stress, Stress-Related Diseases and Coping. 2nd ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 1998.

Tower of Babel (c. 1563), by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam. The tower in Genesis 11 is a literary image of a  prison where the Jews were held captive by the King of the World, Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon.

Wegner, Daniel M. The Illusion of Conscious Will, MIT Press 2002, p. 252.) 

"Xenophanes." Stanford Dictionary of Philosophy. 2 Jan 2008. 8 Jan 2008.

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