ENGLISH 101. ACADEMIC WRITING
Instructions for Lesson 17
1. Read this page.
2. Make and keep an appointment with Dr. G to review your progress in the course.
3. Add three more sources to your research journal (assigned in Lesson 12.) Today's source hunting should wrap up the bulk of your work on your research journal. You tell me what it all means in your Research Narrative Essay (as assigned in Lesson 14) that's due in Lesson 18!
4. Try the attached exercise on "research questions."
Last call on plagiarism and citation
Use of researched source material is absolutely essential to academic writing, so you must know how to handle sources correctly, skillfully, and without plagiarism. Hacker covers the plagiarism rules in A Pocket Style Manual at section 29 (Hacker 115-118).
You can perfect your understanding of this important subject by visiting Hacker's web site and trying her online research exercises. From her research exercises page, click on the area "MLA" and then to the right click on "Avoiding plagiarism in MLA papers." (There are three sets of exercises, a total of 25 questions.) You will be asked to sign in by providing your name and the instructor's email. For instructor's email here use firstname.lastname@example.org.
If you have any remaining questions about plagiarism after trying Hacker's exercises, please raise them immediately. This lesson will complete our formal coverage of the MLA rules.
"telling of one Socrates, a wise
The ancient sages revealed "true" heaven, "true" earth, and similar mysteries hidden from the view of ordinary people in everyday life. In many cases they offered their claims of this extraordinary kind of "knowledge" as proof that they knew gods, or heard gods, or indeed that they themselves were gods. Their claims to divine wisdom often drew the wrath of the religious establishment, and led to banishment or execution. And yet their kind remains and even flourishes in the modern world. We recognize it in eccentric cult leaders who continue to attract small bands of fanatical believers and to lead them off to paradise. We also recognize it in Galileo, Darwin, Faust, Dr. Frankenstein and other real and fictitious academic researchers engaged in the deepest speculation in the sciences.
Socrates set the research agenda by recognizing the importance of what we don't know. In a wonderful passage in "Phaedo" he reveals to his friends that the world is much bigger than they think, and that there's a true earth and a true heaven that human beings have been too feeble or too lazy to see:
Today we should be in a position to know much more about the universe than Socrates knew 2400 years ago, and yet we remain almost as unenlightened as he claimed to be. Astrophysicists who are up to date on the latest research can join Plato's hero in speculating about a "true" heaven and "true" stars that are many times greater than the known universe. Recent measurements with the Hubble space telescope have confirmed Edwin Hubble's original discovery that the observable galaxies are receding away from one another, but the new data clearly shows that the expansion is proceeding at ever-faster rates of speed! Under the laws of physics that we currently know, the expansion from the original explosion of the Big Bang ought to be slowing down--like the deceleration in explosions that we observe in debris from bombs on earth. Unless something is wrong with our present understanding of the physics of explosions, the Big Bang theory of the universe now needs a drastic overhaul. The motion of the visible galaxies implies that the Big Bang "universe" is only a small fragment surrounded in every direction by mysterious mass of incomprehensibly immense gravitational force.
In the twenty-first century AD, we are still frogs around a marsh. Since the time of Socrates, the marsh has grown slightly larger, but the vast bulk of reality, the "true heaven" that remains unknown, has grown much faster. From the little knowledge that we do have, we have more reason than Socrates to be impressed with the scope of our ignorance.
3. the practical use of research
Whatever we don't know--and there's more that we realize we don't know than at any time before--we have the opportunity to discover through theoretical or applied research. Inquiry into the size of the universe is "theoretical," but "applied" research inquires into problems of immediate practical use or application.
The opportunities of applied research are far greater than most students imagine. We tend to associate research only with universities and high tech companies, but I encountered it everywhere in my life, not only in colleges and graduate schools, and in law practice and in politics, but also in the seemingly low-tech business of lumber manufacturing. In order to outperform its many competitors, our company designed its own machinery and manufacturing processes. It developed new products and markets where none existed before. All competitive advantage in business is based on research--whether it's market research (on customers), industry research (on competitors), economic research (accounting research on profits and losses, costs, and efficiencies), research into resources, product research, or technological research.
My late uncle Neil, for example, lived the life of research and reaped very practical benefits from it. There was nothing cut and dried about his career in the lumber business.
Neil graduated from Dryden High School, class of 1951, and he went on to the SUNY College of Forestry at Syracuse University. He enjoyed those college years, forming friendships that lasted a lifetime and participating in varsity athletics--and drinking beer--but above all developing skills that would lead to a highly successful career in business. His field was wood technology. By the time he graduated, he knew the properties and uses of the different species of wood from all over the world, but what use could be made of such seemingly abstract knowledge?
For a few years after college, Neil took several jobs with different employers, buying and selling all species and grades of North American lumber. These early jobs rounded out Neil's education by teaching him the markets. He was a fine salesman, but his education enabled him to do more. Because of his thorough knowledge of woods, he could envision new wood products and also new markets for existing wood products. This ability to innovate was his competitive advantage.
When Neil entered business for himself, he specialized in developing overseas markets for hardwoods from North America. His was the first company to sell these products extensively in Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia and other developing markets. (Of course, everyone in the American wood industry today, some 40 years later, takes these markets for granted.) It was Neil's education that made these pioneering efforts possible. For example, unlike others before him, he could foresee how white hard maple lumber from New York State might gain acceptance by the Japanese people in their highly traditional housing, furnishings and crafts. (Native wood species in Japan had been depleted through over-use.) He was able to persuade some Japanese entrepreneurs that they should take the risk of introducing this strange western wood into their stores. This business became quite successful, especially during the boom years of the Japanese economy in the 1970's and 1980's.
When other companies learned what Neil had been doing, they entered the lumber markets that Neil had created, and Neil's company gradually lost the competitive advantage that it once had held. Competitive pressures of this sort led Neil to further pioneering research throughout the balance of his career. In the year of his death, for example, he had experimented with Brazilian Eucalyptus wood, and he had discovered how to kiln dry it successfully. (The textbooks all said that it couldn't be done.) When he died, Neil was in the process of constructing a manufacturing complex in partnership with a huge Brazilian paper company that had been using its millions of acres of Eucalyptus plantations only to grow cheap pulp wood to make paper. The high quality Eucalyptus lumber coming from this Brazilian mill today is a substitute for Black Cherry, one of North America's most expensive woods. Black Cherry can't compete economically with Eucalyptus because it takes 80 to 100 years to grow a mature Black Cherry, but the amazing Eucalyptus matures to a full height of 75 to 100 feet in only 12 to 15 years!
Neil's research benefited himself, his family, dozens of employees whose jobs he created, and hundreds of his business associates all over the world. Never forgetting the crucial role that his college education had played, Neil donated generously throughout his later life to research projects and student scholarships at Syracuse SUNY ESF.
Students sometimes think that research is only an academic exercise, because that is how they have experienced it in their young lives. But research is considerably more. What you learn distinguishes you from people who have not learned, but what you discover distinguishes you from everyone else on earth. Your knowledge can be your economic advantage when you succeed in applied research.
Left: Neil Gutchess, summer of 1951, Skaneateles Lake
Left: a memory garden devoted to the late Neil Gutchess. In Japan ancestors are worshipped in memory gardens of this sort--it is the Japanese counterpart to the ancient Greek hero shrine--so this tribute to Neil's memory is an unusual honor.